Ultrasound In Infertility ppt
Ultrasound Scan is one of the most frequently used technology in medicine that has been well researched for many years and found to be safe for diagnosis and treatment.
It is safe for the mother and the unborn child.
You see, ultrasound has been in use naturally for millions of years, it has been used by bats and some other animals to find their way in the dark and also to locate food.
Man has only just recently been able to discover ultrasound and how it can help us to locate organs in the human body and beam it as image for diagnosis and treatment.
Infertility has been one particular area where ultrasound has been of immense help. Through ultrasound we have been able to look at the internal structures of the female reproductive anatomy and learn many things that can help us solve the problem.
TRANSVAGINAL ULTRASOUND SCAN: Transvaginal ultrasound is an imaging technique used to create a picture of the genital tract in women. The hand-held device that produces the ultrasound waves is inserted directly into the vagina, close to the pelvic structures, thus often producing a clearer and less distorted image than obtained through transabdominal ultrasound technology, where the probe is located externally on the skin of the abdomen.
Transvaginal ultrasound can be used to evaluate problems or abnormalities of the female genital tract. It may provide more accurate information than transabdominal ultrasound for women who are obese, for women who are being evaluated or treated for infertility , or for women who have difficulty keeping a full bladder.
However, it does provide a view of a smaller area than the transabdominal ultrasound.
Types of conditions or abnormalities that can be examined include:
 The endometrium of women with infertility problems or who are experiencing abnormal bleeding
 Sources of unexplained pain
 Congenital malformations of the ovaries and uterus
 Ovarian cysts and tumors
 Pelvic infections, such as pelvic inflammatory disease
 Bladder abnormalities
 A misplaced IUCD (intrauterine contraceptive device)
and other causes of infertility
Transvaginal ultrasound can also be used during pregnancy. Its capability of producing more complete images means that it is especially useful for identifying ectopic pregnancy, fetal heartbeat, and abnormalities of the uterus, placenta, and associated pelvic structures including the thickness of the endometrium during ovulation, the nature of the womb and especially the monitoring of the eggs.
Folliculometry or what you call the serial ultrasound monitoring of ovulation has recently been very instrumental to increasing fertility in ladies.
Ultrasound Folliculometry is a serial Transvaginal ultrasound scan test carried out to monitor follicular growth .Ovulation/Follicular growth can be best monitored by ultrasound folliculometry, providing 0–60% effectiveness.
Folliculometry is one of the most accurate method for determining ovulation.
Ovulation scans allow the doctor to determine accurately when the egg matures; and when you ovulate. This is often the basic procedure for most infertility treatment since the treatment revolves around the wife’s ovulation. Daily scans are done to visualize the growing follicle, which looks like a black bubble on the screen. Most women can see the follicle clearly for themselves – and know by the scans when the egg has ruptured. Other useful information which can be determined by these scans is the thickness of the uterine lining – the endometrium. The ripening follicle produces increasing quantities of estrogen, which cause the endometrium to thicken. The specialist can get a good idea of how much estrogen you are producing (and thus the quality of the egg) based on the thickness and brightness of the endometrium on the ultrasound scan.
Ultrasound folliculometry is started from day 6 – 8 counting from the first day of menstruation. Folliculometry is performed every 2 or 3 days in the initial stages and can be done daily from the day 12, till after the follicle ruptures [post ovulation]. So in a routine ultrasound folliculometry the lady could be scanned transvaginally for between 3 to 6 sessions.
Of all the known studies of ovulation, folliculometry has been found to be the safest and the most accurate in ovulation monitoring .
That is why in all advanced fertility technologies , it is the most frequently used.